period() creates a period object with the specified values.

period(num = NULL, units = "second", ...)

is.period(x)

seconds(x = 1)

minutes(x = 1)

hours(x = 1)

days(x = 1)

weeks(x = 1)

years(x = 1)

milliseconds(x = 1)

microseconds(x = 1)

nanoseconds(x = 1)

picoseconds(x = 1)

# S3 method for numeric
months(x, abbreviate)

Arguments

num

a numeric vector that lists the number of time units to be included in the period. From v1.6.0 num can also be a character vector that specifies durations in a convenient shorthand format. All unambiguous name units and abbreviations are supported, "m" stands for months, "M" for minutes; see examples. Fractional units are supported but the fractional part is always converted to seconds.

units

a character vector that lists the type of units to be used. The units in units are matched to the values in num according to their order. When num is character, this argument is ignored.

...

a list of time units to be included in the period and their amounts. Seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, and years are supported. Normally only one of num or ... are present. If both are present, the periods are concatenated.

x

Any R object for is.periods and a numeric value of the number of units for elementary constructors. With the exception of seconds(), x must be an integer.

abbreviate

Ignored. For consistency with S3 generic in base namespace.

Value

a period object

Details

Within a Period object, time units do not have a fixed length (except for seconds) until they are added to a date-time. The length of each time unit will depend on the date-time to which it is added. For example, a year that begins on 2009-01-01 will be 365 days long. A year that begins on 2012-01-01 will be 366 days long. When math is performed with a period object, each unit is applied separately. How the length of a period is distributed among its units is non-trivial. For example, when leap seconds occur 1 minute is longer than 60 seconds.

Periods track the change in the "clock time" between two date-times. They are measured in common time related units: years, months, days, hours, minutes, and seconds. Each unit except for seconds must be expressed in integer values.

Period objects can be easily created with the helper functions years(), months(), weeks(), days(), hours(), minutes(), and seconds(). These objects can be added to and subtracted to date-times to create a user interface similar to object oriented programming.

Note: Arithmetic with periods can results in undefined behavior when non-existent dates are involved (such as February 29th). Please see Period for more details and %m+% and add_with_rollback() for alternative operations. Note: Arithmetic with periods can results in undefined behavior when non-existent dates are involved (such as February 29th in non-leap years). Please see Period for more details and %m+% and add_with_rollback() for alternative operations.

See also

Period, period(), %m+%, add_with_rollback()

Examples

period(c(90, 5), c("second", "minute"))
#> [1] "5M 90S"
# "5M 90S" period(-1, "days")
#> [1] "-1d 0H 0M 0S"
period(c(3, 1, 2, 13, 1), c("second", "minute", "hour", "day", "week"))
#> [1] "20d 2H 1M 3S"
period(c(1, -60), c("hour", "minute"))
#> [1] "1H -60M 0S"
period(0, "second")
#> [1] "0S"
period (second = 90, minute = 5)
#> [1] "5M 90S"
period(day = -1)
#> [1] "-1d 0H 0M 0S"
period(second = 3, minute = 1, hour = 2, day = 13, week = 1)
#> [1] "20d 2H 1M 3S"
period(hour = 1, minute = -60)
#> [1] "1H -60M 0S"
period(second = 0)
#> [1] "0S"
period(c(1, -60), c("hour", "minute"), hour = c(1, 2), minute = c(3, 4))
#> [1] "1H -60M 0S" "1H 3M 0S" "2H 4M 0S"
period("2M 1sec")
#> [1] "2M 1S"
period("2hours 2minutes 1second")
#> [1] "2H 2M 1S"
period("2d 2H 2M 2S")
#> [1] "2d 2H 2M 2S"
period("2days 2hours 2mins 2secs")
#> [1] "2d 2H 2M 2S"
# Missing numerals default to 1. Repeated units are added up. duration("day day")
#> [1] "172800s (~2 days)"
# Comparison with characters is supported from v1.6.0. duration("day 2 sec") > "day 1sec"
#> [1] TRUE
### ELEMENTARY CONSTRUCTORS x <- as.POSIXct("2009-08-03") x + days(1) + hours(6) + minutes(30)
#> [1] "2009-08-04 06:30:00 PDT"
x + days(100) - hours(8)
#> [1] "2009-11-10 16:00:00 PST"
class(as.Date("2009-08-09") + days(1)) # retains Date class
#> [1] "Date"
as.Date("2009-08-09") + hours(12)
#> [1] "2009-08-09 12:00:00 UTC"
class(as.Date("2009-08-09") + hours(12))
#> [1] "POSIXlt" "POSIXt"
# converts to POSIXt class to accomodate time units years(1) - months(7)
#> Note: method with signature ‘Period#ANY’ chosen for function ‘-’, #> target signature ‘Period#Period’. #> "ANY#Period" would also be valid
#> [1] "1y -7m 0d 0H 0M 0S"
c(1:3) * hours(1)
#> [1] "1H 0M 0S" "2H 0M 0S" "3H 0M 0S"
hours(1:3)
#> [1] "1H 0M 0S" "2H 0M 0S" "3H 0M 0S"
#sequencing y <- ymd(090101) # "2009-01-01 CST" y + months(0:11)
#> [1] "2009-01-01" "2009-02-01" "2009-03-01" "2009-04-01" "2009-05-01" #> [6] "2009-06-01" "2009-07-01" "2009-08-01" "2009-09-01" "2009-10-01" #> [11] "2009-11-01" "2009-12-01"
# compare DST handling to durations boundary <- as.POSIXct("2009-03-08 01:59:59") boundary + days(1) # period
#> [1] "2009-03-09 01:59:59 PDT"
boundary + ddays(1) # duration
#> [1] "2009-03-09 02:59:59 PDT"
is.period(as.Date("2009-08-03")) # FALSE
#> [1] FALSE
is.period(period(months= 1, days = 15)) # TRUE
#> [1] TRUE